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CT de Saneamento Rural no 28º CBESA: para especialistas, Brasil deve adotar novo paradigma de gestão de secas

O Brasil precisa adotar um novo paradigma de gestão de secas. A afirmação permeou os debates da Câmara Temática de Saneamento Rural da ABES durante o 28º Congresso Brasileiro de Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental, realizado entre 4 e 8 de outubro no Riocentro, Rio de Janeiro. Coordenada por Mônica Bicalho Pinto Rodrigues, que também é presidente da ABES Seção Minas Gerais (ABES-MG), a CT reuniu no Congresso especialistas do setor que debateram o tema “Gestão, Seca e Meio Rural”.

Por diversas razões, o assunto tem importante relevância no cenário brasileiro, como explica Mônica Bicalho. “Sabe-se que grande parte de nossa população rural vive no Nordeste do Brasil e nas regiões Norte e Nordeste de Minas onde a seca é um fenômeno natural: chuvas irregulares, altas temperaturas, forte evapotranspiração, rios intermitentes são realidades com as quais convivemos”.

Neste contexto, a palestra “Monitoramento e planos de preparação às secas e sua aplicação na área rural” mostrou o trabalho desenvolvido pelo Banco Mundial. A especialista em Recursos Hídricos do Banco, Carmen Molejon, enfatizou que deve ser quebrado o “Ciclo Hidro-ilógico” e adotado um novo paradigma de gestão da seca: uma gestão proativa baseada em 3 pilares: 1- Monitoramento, previsão, redes e sistemas de alerta precoce, 2- avaliação e relatoria do impacto e vulnerabilidade/resiliência 3- planejamento e medidas de resposta à mitigação.

Este conceito, segundo Mônica, foi reforçado na apresentação do Diretor Técnico da Subdireção de Avaliação Ambiental do MAGRAMA- Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Agricultura e Alimentação da Espanha, Dr. Manuel Menéndez, que veio especialmente participar da Mesa Redonda com a patrocínio do Banco Mundial. “Naquele país, até o ano 2000, o enfoque para problemas das secas se baseava na ‘reação à situação de crise’, ou seja, uma gestão reativa” salienta.

A partir daquele ano, e a partir de lições aprendidas com a seca de 1990-95, explica a coordenadora da Câmara, o planejamento passou a ser foco do governo, onde um Plano Hidrológico Nacional, desse 2001, estabelece sistemas de indicadores de pré-alerta, alerta e emergência, permitindo uma prevenção através de ações planejadas. “As secas podem ser identificadas antes que os seus impactos sejam irremediáveis e ações são tomadas antes e não durante a seca”.

O Estado do Ceará, representado pelo assessor da Presidência da CAGECE para Convivência com a seca nas áreas urbanas e rurais, Dr. Helder dos Santos Cortez, também marcou presença no painel. E mostrou, conforme Mônica, as diversas ações em desenvolvimento para manter o padrão de atenção ao Saneamento Rural naquele Estado, reforçando o abastecimento através de implantação de adutoras, buscando novas fontes de produção- principalmente através da perfuração de poços tubulares, adequando tarifas, de forma a minimizar o sofrimento do homem no campo.

Finalmente, o Instituto Terra, Organização Ambiental dedicada ao desenvolvimento sustentável do Vale do Rio Doce, que abrange regiões de Minas Gerais e Espírito Santo, por meio do Gerente Ambiental Jaeder Lopes Vieira, “deu um ‘show’ de cidadania, responsabilidade e comprometimento com o meio ambiente”, enfatiza a coordenadora da Câmara Temática.

O Instituto Terra foi fundado em 1998, pela iniciativa do casal Lélia e Sebastião Salgado, fotógrafo internacionalmente conhecido. Através de parcerias e captação de recursos, a antiga fazenda da família em Aimorés-MG, totalmente degradada, hoje abriga uma floresta rica em diversidade de espécies da flora da Mata Atlântica. O Instituto promove a restauração ecossistêmica da área, a produção de mudas em viveiros, extensão e educação ambiental e pesquisa científica aplicada.

Ainda conforme Mônica, as debatedoras Tereza Bernardes, socióloga, especialista em Saneamento Rural e secretária executiva da Câmara Temática e Carme Mota, consultora da MACS- GmbH, enfatizaram os principais pontos das apresentações e “deram seu recado” a partir de suas experiências no setor.

A Câmara Temática de Saneamento Rural da ABES, criada em 1998 como Comitê Nacional, vem desde 2009 coordenando Mesas Redondas nos Congressos da ABES, além de promover Seminários Nacionais com o apoio das Seções Estaduais da entidade, que a partir de 2012, passaram a agregar Encontros Latinoamericanos de Saneamento Rural.

Dentro da programação da Câmara ocorreu, ainda, a reunião ordinária na qual ficou decidido, em acordo com o presidente da ABES-CE, Francisco André Martins Pinto, que o próximo Seminário da CT será realizado no Ceará em data a ser definida  entre maio/junho de 2016.

Da esq. para a dir. André, Mônica e Helder dos Santos

 

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